). Implications of enigmatic transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in cardiac diseases and therapeutic developments
Cardiac diseases are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mounting evidence suggests that transglutaminases (TGs), tissue TG (TG2) in particular, are involved in numerous molecular responses underlying the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. The TG family has several intra- and extracellular functions in the human body, including collagen cross-linking, angiogenesis, cell growth, differentiation, migration, adhesion as well as survival. TGs are thiol- and calcium-dependent acyl transferases that catalyze the formation of a covalent bond between the ?-carboxamide group of a glutamine residue and an amine group, thus increasing the stability, rigidity, and stiffness of the myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM). Excessive accumulation of cross-linked collagen leads to increase myocardial stiffness and fibrosis. Beyond TG2 extracellular protein cross-linking action, increasing evidence suggests that this pleiotropic TG isozyme may also promote fibrotic diseases through cell survival and profibrotic pathway activation at the signaling, transcriptional and translational levels. Due to its multiple functions and localizations, TG2 fulfils critical yet incompletely understood roles in myocardial fibrosis and associated heart diseases, such as cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and age-related myocardial stiffness under several conditions. This review summarizes current knowledge and existing gaps regarding the ECM-dependent and ECM-independent roles of TG2 and highlights the therapeutic prospects of targeting TG2 to treat cardiac diseases
Publishing Year